The LIGA Process, A Fabrication Method for Three-Dimensional Mechanical Microstructures

The UGA process has become an accepted technology for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures made of a great variety of materials (plastics, metals, alloys, ceramics) with critical dimensions, on the order of one micron and with submicron accuracy over the total height of several hundred microns. The main process steps are deep etch X-ray lithography with synchrotron radiation, electrofonning and plastic molding. Figure 1 shows the process scheme for the LIGA process.


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